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Try out PMC Labs and tell us what you think. Learn More. Durango, Mexico. Depression during pregnancy has been scantily studied in Mexican women.
We aimed to determine the prevalence and correlates of depression in adult pregnant women attending a public hospital in the northern Mexican city of Durango, Mexico. Through a cross-sectional study de, we assessed depression in adult pregnant women attended for prenatal care in a public hospital using a validated Mexican version of the Edinburg Postnatal Depression Scale in pregnancy and further confirmation by a psychiatric evaluation using the DSM-IV criteria for depression. Prevalence association with socio-demographic, clinical and psychosocial characteristics of the pregnant women was also investigated.
Of the pregnant women studied, Depression was confirmed in 56 Of them, 42 suffered from minor depression Old woman looking for sex in Hochhausen 14 from major depression. indicate that about one fifth of the pregnant women studied had confirmed depression. This is the first report of an association of prenatal depression with unhappiness with the fetal sex.
Factors associated with prenatal depression found in this study may help for the optimal de of preventive measures against prenatal depression. Depression during pregnancy is highly prevalent and understudied 1. However, only a small of women with major depression seek treatment during pregnancy and postpartum 3.
Depression during pregnancy may lead to morbidity in both mothers and offspring 14. Depression during pregnancy has been associated with obstetric complications 5premature delivery and decreased breastfeeding initiation 6. The presence of depression during pregnancy is a strong predictor of postnatal depression 78 and it is more common than postpartum depression 8. Prenatal depression may also lead to postpartum psychosis 9. A of risk factors have been associated with prenatal depression including life stress, lack of social support, domestic violence 10poverty, unplanned pregnancy and marital difficulties 2.
Very little is known about the epidemiology of prenatal depression in Mexico. Prevalences of depression in pregnant women in Mexico City varied from Whereas, in a study in the southern Mexican city of Cancun, Quintana Roo, researchers found a low 6. We sought to determine the prevalence of depression in pregnant women attended for prenatal care in a public hospital in Durango City, Mexico; and to determine the correlates of prenatal depression in the women studied.
Through a cross-sectional study de, we studied adult pregnant women who attended routine prenatal consultations in a public hospital General Hospital of the Secretary of Health in Durango City, Mexico. Sampling was performed at random from March to October Inclusion criteria for enrollment in the study were pregnant women month of pregnancy attended for prenatal care in the General Hospital, aged 18 years and older, and who accepted to participate.
Occupation, socioeconomic status or residence of the women were not restrictive criteria for enrollment. In total, women were included in the study. They were years old mean age: Participants were evaluated within their months median: 8 months of pregnancy. Of the women studied, 52 were in their first pregnancy and were in their pregnancy. Depression in a woman was considered only when the psychiatrist confirmed the diagnosis.
The psychiatrist who assessed depression in the pregnant women was blind to the EPDS scores. The psychiatric consultations were performed during the same day the EDPS were submitted. We obtained the socio-demographic, clinical and psychosocial characteristics of the pregnant women with the aid of a questionnaire.
Socio-demographic items included age, occupation, marital status, education, birthplace, residence, religion, having a health insurance, age at marriage, and of marriages. Clinical data included health status, obstetric history, type of obstetric outcome delivery or cesarean section of last pregnancy, presence of complications during their last delivery, history of breastfeeding, health status of their last newborn, of children, history of depression before pregnancy or trauma in live, history of postpartum depression, stress or anxiety before pregnancy, gestational age, of fetuses in the current pregnancy, knowledge of the fetal sex, fetal sex, a depression episode during pregnancy, anxiety or stress during pregnancy, smoking, consumption of alcohol, drug abuse, and size and health status of the fetus.
Psychosocial data included separation from parents at young age, presence of financial or family problems, bad relation with her mother in law, satisfaction with her education, support from her couple, relatives, friends or colleagues, support from the Mexican government, happiness for the sex of the fetus, intended pregnancy, good relation with her couple, living with her couple, abandoned by her couple, violence from her couple, satisfaction with her body image, and couple living abroad.
were analysed with the SPSS version Bivariate analysis was used to select variables for multivariate analysis. The association between depression and the characteristics of the pregnant women was assessed by multivariate analyses.
Variables with a P value equal to or less than 0. The Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness of fit test was used to assess the fitness of our regression model.
A P value less than 0. The purpose and procedures of the study were explained to all participants. All participants were adults and a written informed consent was obtained from all of them. This study was conducted in accordance with the principles of the Declaration of Helsinki. These women with likely presence of depression detected by the screening test were further examined for confirmation of depression. The psychiatric evaluation confirmed depression in 56 of the women. Thus, the general prevalence of depression in the pregnant women studied was Of the 56 women with depression, 42 suffered from minor depression and 14 suffered from major depression.
Therefore, the prevalence of minor and major depression in the women studied were Depressed women were treated with psychotherapy or sertraline. Other socio-demographic characteristics of women including age, occupation, marital status, educational level, birthplace, residence, religion, having a health insurance, or age at marriage showed P values higher than 0. With respect to the clinical characteristics, bivariate analysis showed a of variables with a P value equal to or lower than 0.
Concerning psychosocial characteristics of the women, bivariate analysis showed some variables with P values equal to or lower than 0. Multivariate analysis of selected characteristics of pregnant women and their association with depression. Very little is known about depression in pregnant women in Mexico. In the present study, we determined the prevalence and correlates of depression in adult pregnant women attending a public hospital in the northern Mexican city of Durango. showed that This prevalence is higher than the 6.
It is not clear why the pregnant women of Durango had a higher prevalence of depression than that in women in Cancun. However, it is likely that difference in socio-demographic characteristics among the populations and difference in methods among the studies may explain the difference in the prevalences.
We included only adult women whereas researchers in Cancun included both adult and adolescent women. We did not exclude women with history of depression whereas the other research group excluded women who have suffered from depression 6 months before pregnancy.
On the other hand, the prevalence of depression found in our study is lower than the However, this comparison should be interpreted with care since pregnant women studied in Mexico City were adolescents while we studied adult pregnant women. In a further study of prenatal depression in pregnant Latinas in the USA and Mexico City, researchers found depressive symptoms in In a recent study, However, the use of different depression scales among the studies makes the prevalence comparison unfair. We studied women in Durango because they have a of characteristics that are different from those of women living in other Mexican states.
For instance, poverty in women in Durango is common Durango State is the poorest state in northern Mexico ; migration in Durango is also common and many women live without their partners; and violence in Durango is also high. All these characteristics might contribute for depression in women. There are numerous tools to screen prenatal depression 3.
However, to the best of our knowledge this is the first study to determine the prevalence and correlates of prenatal depression in Mexico by using the EPDS. In an international context in studies using the EPDS, the prevalence found in the present study is similar than the Prevalence result of the present study is in line with others in socially vulnerable women.
We searched for characteristic of pregnant women associated with Old woman looking for sex in Hochhausen. Multivariate analysis of socio-demographic, clinical and psychosocial characteristics of the women showed that depression was associated with depression before pregnancy, anxiety during pregnancy, smoking, unhappiness with the fetal sex, and unintended pregnancy. In a meta-analysis of 57 studies to evaluate risk factors for antepartum depressive symptoms, the variable history of depression was associated with prenatal depression by bivariate analysis In the present study, the variable depression before pregnancy was found associated with prenatal depression in both bivariate and multivariate analyses.
Prenatal depression has been linked with anxiety. In a study of pregnant women in a socioeconomically deprived area in Adelaide, Australia, researchers found an increased risk of antenatal depression with feelings of depression and anxiety In addition, anxiety during pregnancy has been linked to intense postnatal depressive symptoms The association of depression with smoking found in our study is consistent with observations.
In a Brazilian study of pregnant women, the presence of depression was associated with smoking during pregnancyOld woman looking for sex in Hochhausen
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